Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of nervous tissue and consequently loss of motor and sensory function. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in direct and indirect damage to neural tissues which results in motor and sensory dysfunction, dystonia, and pathological reflex that ultimately lead to paraplegia or tetraplegia. A loss of cells, axon regeneration failure, and time-sensitive pathophysiology make tissue repair difficult. Despite various medical developments, there are currently no effective regenerative treatments.
Cell therapy is a promising treatment for SCI due to its multiple targets and reactivity benefits. Cell therapy was used to treat SCI as the cells can suppress the inflammation to limit the secondary injury, secrete paracrine factors that protect the remaining axons and promote axonal regeneration, and differentiate into nerve cells to replace the damaged cells.