Diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations. There are 2 primary forms of diabetes, insulin-dependent (IDDM) or type-1 and non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) or type-2. In Type-1 DM there is a deficit of insulin caused by autoimmune destruction of β-cells. Therefore the only treatment in the type-1 DM is exogenous administration of insulin or beta-cell transplantation. On the other hand in the Type-2 DM, which is also the most commonest diabetes phenotype, there is inherent insulin resistance of peripheral tissues, which indirectly leads to insulin depletion in the latter stages.
The field of regenerative medicine has rapidly evolved, paving the way for novel therapeutic interventions through cellular therapies.